Citing Multimedia Sources
|CITING AN ONLINE VIDEO (2)|
|APA (6th) General Format||Name of creator[s] (Role of creator). (Year). Title of video [format]. Retreived from URL.|
|APA (6th) Example||Canadian Broadcast Corporation, Films for the Humanities, and Films Media Group (prod.) (2008). Homelessness: The "housing first" approach [streaming video]. Retrieved from http://digital.films.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?aid=9468&xtid=40075|
|MLA (7th) General Format||Title of video. Dir. First name Last name of director, if available. Title of video. Publisher, year. Database name. Web. Day Month Year retrieved <Permalink>.|
|MLA (7th) Example||Homelessness: The “Housing First” Approach. Films Media Group, 2008. Films On Demand. Web. 28 July 2011. <http://digital.films.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?aid=9468&xtid=40075>|
|Turabian General Format||Name of creator[s] (Role of creator). Title of video [format]. Available from URL.|
|Turabian Example||Canadian Broadcast Corporation, Films for the Humanities, and Films Media Group (Producer). Homelessness: The “Housing First” Approach [streaming video]. Available from http://digital.films.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?aid=9468&xtid=40075|
|CITING A TELEVISION OR RADIO BROADCAST (3)|
|APA (6th) General Format||Creator last name, Creator initials (Role of creator). (Year of broadcast). Title of episode [Television series episode]. In Initial Last name (Executive producer), Title of series. Location: Network.|
|APA (6th) Example||Haffner, C. (Director). (1993). "Frederick Douglass" [Television series episode]. In S. Paddor (Producer), Civil War journal. Arts and Entertainment Network.|
|MLA (7th) General Format||"Title of Episode." Title of Program or Series. Network, if applicable. Call letters, ;Local city, if applicable. Day Month Year of broadcast. Medium.|
|MLA (7th) Example||"Frederick Douglass." Civil War Journal. Arts and Entertainment Network. 6 Apr. 1993. Television.|
|Turabian General Format||"Cite ... broadcast sources only in parenthetical citations" -- Turabian, Sec. 19.8.3.|
|CITING A SOUND RECORDING (4)|
|APA (6th) General Format||Last name of creator, Initials of creator. (Copyright Year). Title of piece [Medium of recording]. [Recorded by Artist initial Artist last name]. Location: label. (Date of recording year if different from copyright).|
|APA (6th) Example||Beethoven, L. (1992). Concerto for piano & orchestra no. 2 in B-flat major, op. 19: Concerto for piano & orchestra no. 4 in G major, op. 58 [CD]. [Recorded by L. Fleisher, G. Szell, G., & the Cleveland Orchestra]. New York: Sony Classical. (1959, 1961).|
|MLA (7th) General Format||Last name of creator, First name of creator. Title of Piece. Perf. Full name of performer[s]. Cond. Full name of conductor. Rec. Day Month Year of recording. Place of pulbication: Label name, date of release. Format. Series name if applicable.|
|MLA (7th) Example||Beethoven, Ludwig van. Concerto for Piano & Orchestra No. 2 in B-Flat Major, Op. 19: Concerto for Piano & Orchestra No. 4 in G Major, Op. 58. Perf. Leon Fleisher. Cleveland Orchestra. Cond. George Szell. Rec. 16 April 1961 and 10 Jan 1959. New York, NY: Sony Classical, 1992. CD. Essential Classics.|
|Turabian General Format||Last name of creator, First name of creator. Copyright date. Title of Piece, by Name of composer. Orchestra name. Label (format).|
|Turabian Example||Szell, George, cond. 1992. Concerto for piano & orchestra no. 2 in B-flat major, op. 19 Concerto for piano & orchestra no. 4 in G major, op. 58, by Ludwig van Beethoven. Cleveland Orchestra. Sony Classical (CD).|
Tip: While you cannot trust any of WorldCat's generated citations for multimedia resources, you can use WorldCat's detailed records to find elements for a citation that may be necessary.
(1) Citations to media can be extremely complex, given the number of people involved in its production, the variety of media formats in which any work can appear, whether the work is broadcast or recorded, and when it comes to music--the number of covers. Refer to the respective style manuals, available at our Reserves desk, for more details and help.
(2) The examples given are for videos retrieved online. DVD, VHS, and other forms of recorded video are treated differently.
(3) Television and radio broadcasts retreived from the Web should be treated as a web resource, with "Retrieved from" and the URL as the last element of the citation. Recorded television and radio broadcasts should be treated as their format--DVD, CD, etc.
(4) In MLA and Turabian, first authors can be whomever the topic of your discussion is. For example, a music sound recording can be attributed to the composer if the composition is your topic or to the conductor if the performance is your topic.